Ancient Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction. London: Routledge, A general introduction to Ancient Greek philosophy, focusing on arguments. It also contains a very good bibliography. Hermann Diels and Walther Kranz, eds. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Available online.
Raven, and M. The Presocratic Philosophers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Call : K59 Contact seller. Visit store. See other items More See all.
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Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. Donkeys appear smarter than people by keeping to nature instead of digging earth to find bits of shiny metal. Yet gold possesses other true values in context. Other fragments resonate this multiplicity with a wider direction, where unity-in-opposites emerges as constitutive of reality: Fragment One must realize that war is common, and justice strife, and that all things come to be through strife and are so ordained.
He renders some gods, others men; he makes some slaves, others free. It is common in a social, shared sense of organization and order, but is also generative ginomena. War s mutual creative and governing aspects echo the Gadamerian sketch of groundless, unmediated projection. This shared commonness exhibits another layer in Fragment 2, which resonantly indicates that the account logos is also common zun or shared.
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Fragment 2: Though the account is common, the many live, however, as though they had a private understanding. The account or logos is also common, but not universal in the same way as war. Human understanding can be divorced from the common despite its presumably shared permeation of the intellect. Fragments 34 and 51 characterize this separation similarly, playing the same keyword common zun but with the alpha-privative, a-zunetoi : Fragment : Uncomprehending,… they are like deaf people. Their saying absent while present fits them well… Fragment They do not understand [lit.
There is a back-turning connection, like that of a bow or lyre. The human being can comprehend the zun, the common, but can equally be turned from it, uncomprehending, a-zunetoi. Vis-a-vis Gadamer s reading, these fragments express a eraclitean Ibid. Moreover, as Gadamer writes, the transitions between these states seem to express the truth of reality, existing within the already familiar. Water comes into existence out of earth, and soul out of water.
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The sea is a life-force originating in water, but depending on water s origin and who uses it, it can be healthy or toxic. Water for its part exhibits elemental transition, yet what eraclitus does not make explicit here is water s phenomenological givenness as a relatively fixed concept. That things possess this fixity emerges in sayings such as Fragment 1: the account logos holds forever; words logoi and works ergon can render things distinguishable according to their nature phusei , that is, the manner in which they arise.
There are constitutions and connections among things. Things can be articulated via words, objects, and acts. Heraclitus speaks of a broader cognition into this dynamic in numerous places: Fragment Poor witnesses for people are eyes and ears if they possess uncomprehending lit. Wholes consists of divisive parts; the bow and lyre work via opposing powers; knowledge is useless without the proper inward orientation of eye, ear, and understanding. There is a language of reality, presumably resonant with ours, but only if we learn its language. As Fragment 1 above suggests, this language likewise is our language; we can set forth words that capture how things arise.source
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But human language and insight can diverge from the logos unifying center; as such, the human equally can diverge from itself. To the extent that Fragment asks after the meaning of the human self, how does the human makeup factor into these structures of eraclitus thought? Fragment above asserts that the soul by nature permeates the essence of things.
Fragment 45 likewise suggests that the soul is everywhere: Fragment One would never discover the limits of soul, should one traverse every road — so deep a measure does it possess. In his sleep he touches that which is dead, though himself alive, and when awake touches that which sleeps. For the latter, having changed around, are the former,… Fragment 62 suggests that human life proceeds complementarily and contrariwise to the immortal. Others such as Fragment 26 indicate that fire comes into play in these exchanges.
The Art and Thought of Heraclitus
The greater context of these fragments again reflects Gadamer s suggestion that hermeneutically fundamental in Heraclitus is the sense of wonder at the unmediated contradiction inherent in cosmic and psychic transformations. Heraclitus expresses amazement in understanding that the conscious, waking, and living aspects of the human bear out reverse asymptotes of unconsciousness, sleep, and death.
The human self-aggrandizing potency to expand beyond itself appears alongside similar potencies in the basic elements of things, for instance fire.
Finally, Fragment 52 makes an even more explicit connection of the human to the kosmos: Ibid. What I mean to suggest is this: that world and human are coextensive, such that the self contains world, but also the converse. The fragments I have cited indicate that there are outward and inward dimensions to this coextension.