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The problem with data that is actually not valid has to be dealt with see Chapter 6. A common way of storing video data in FOT -context is to store the video files on a file server and store the links to the video files in the database to link the videos to the trips. For very large FOT s, large amounts of video data can exceed the limits of file systems or storage appliances. This can cause extra complexity, for example to add logic scripts to enable a single mount point that is preferable from a data management point-of-view.

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Different file systems and appliances should be evaluated; for instance ZFS or equivalent for almost unlimited shares. It is worth to examine different video codecs; using an optimal codec can reduce the storage need significantly. It is recommended to separate the database and video file server in order to configure the hardware individually. Outsourcing system operations is possible; however, the costs for network bandwidth, backup, and administration can be very high.

Handbook of Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems | Erik Blasch | Springer

It is strongly recommended that the database is not distributed. For the database, use a single common database. For video storage, also other options can be considered see section 5. However, due to the location and size of the FOT , it might be necessary to establish a distributed solution for data storage. This is especially true when deploying an FOT in different countries with different local data responsible.

In this case, it is recommended to establish a central data server per FOT in charge of gathering all data from all individual databases.

Handbook of Video Databases: Design and Applications

Connection to this central database should be guaranteed so information can be easily transferred from and to this database. A broadband IP connection is then recommended, with simultaneous access. Synchronisation between the central database and individual databases is to be considered, with automatic synchronisation every certain time period. Manual synchronisation is also allowed, but as a complement to automatic synchronisation.

Logical access as well as approval for access to the database must be documented. A role-based access is advised when any user to a certain role of the database obtain certain access. This also applies for the supporting operating system. Any FOT must define the roles and permissions of the database. These roles can be:. Driver data must be stored according to the access restrictions defined by the steering committee. In a collaborative study, some data may be classified as sensitive by one partner or even by a supplier of measurement equipment.

Off site backups are mandatory for managing a disaster scenario. The majority of the data is never edited video and raw data in the database and data mirroring should be sufficient. For data created by private, organisation, or public user spaces, a daily backup strategy should be applied.

A Data Model Summary

Please refer to section 5. The backup policy must be based on the time it takes to recover data and the acceptable loss of data. Even though some studies may use the original logger data as backup, any private or published data created afterwards must have valid continuous backups. Before an FOT is launched the FOT database architecture should be reviewed by a system evaluator to ensure that all requirements are fulfilled and to verify policy documents. Before uploading objective data from a vehicle, a well-defined algorithm should be applied to all the data in order to verify data consistency and validity.

To catch problems with camera failure or other video related problems, a video checking strategy should be implemented. A tool for viewing one or several images per trip can be useful. Moreover, a function to verify at least the size of video files is necessary — the size is somewhat proportional to recording duration.

Again, it may be necessary to have a process that allows the analysts to view, for example, one image per trip and match this with the IDs of the drivers allowed to drive a specific vehicle. If a driver is unknown, then the data for a particular trip may have to be neglected. A software tool for doing this manual identification of drivers is preferable. Be advised that some eye trackers if available provide DriverID functionality. In order to address the validity of the data, the formulation of the questions and possible answers is a key issue, especially when designing a questionnaire to be distributed to respondents.

Questions must evidently be formulated in a clear and unambiguous way. In addition, questions must also, e. Hypothetical questions are the most difficult questions and should be avoided. Regardless of data source, missing data is a threat to the quality see Chapter 9.

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  6. In the case of a missing questionnaire, efforts must be made to ensure that data collection is as complete as possible and reminders must be administered. Furthermore, the number of questions should be thought through, in order to limit the number of questions.

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    In addition, the number of open questions should be as few as possible in order to reduce the effort of the respondents. The interviewer plays an important role in collecting data in an interview situation. However the interviewer may also increase the quality of the data collected by, for instance, answering to questions and using probing questions.

    It is recommended that the FOT project decides on and adheres to a set of naming conventions for measurements. The strategy used should be well documented and thoroughly enforced. Motivations for a clear naming convention include: 1 project-wide consistency, 2 clarity for direct understanding of used measures in analysis, 3 differentiation of non-comparable measurements, and 3 avoidance of confusion.

    When specific measurements are named, references to the following measure attributes are recommended: indicative name , associated source , sample rate , and any other FOT specific descriptor. The compounds should be joined consistently to create a single word. Depending on context and FOT specific requirements all or only a subset of the compounds can be used. To avoid the risk of making faulty comparisons, measurements that are non-comparable should be named differently.

    It is recommended to define procedures and implementation schemes on how to add calculation of pre-processing and performance indicators in the upload process see Chapter 9. These calculations should preferably be read-only for the users. The actual algorithms for the pre-processing and performance indicator calculations in this step have to be well defined and tested on for example pilot test data , or based on previous experience.

    Since the estimation of some specific performance indicator may set specific requirements on the raw data see Chapter 5 , these constrains have to be taken into account when implementing the automatic pre-processing. The focus of this section is to describe analysis tools, not to describe analysis procedures or methods. However, the following features have been identified as important software functionalities:. This section describes the basic functionality of tools for viewing numerical time history data and the associated environment sensing data which includes video data, map data e.

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    6. GPS , and traffic state data e. A general recommendation for an analysis package is to use SQL software for database queries, mathematical analysis software for computation such as Matlab , and common statistical software packages such as SPSS. If huge datasets have to be analysed or more specific requirements exist, then more specialised or proprietary solutions may be necessary.

      The following steps fix this:. Change the default passwords of administrative users immediately after installing the database server. Change the default passwords of all users immediately after installation. Lock and expire all default accounts after installation. If any such account is later activated, then change its default password to a new secure password. Apply basic password management rules, such as password length, history, and complexity, to all user passwords.

      Mandate that all users change their passwords regularly, such as every eight weeks. If possible, use Oracle Advanced Security an option to the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database with network authentication services such as Kerberos , token cards, smart cards, or X.

      Database Lesson #1 of 8 - Introduction to Databases

      These services provide strong user authentication and enable better protection against unauthorized access. Implement data dictionary protection to prevent users who have the ANY system privilege from using it on the data dictionary. Do not provide database users more privileges than necessary. Enable only those privileges actually required to perform necessary jobs efficiently:. If unnecessary privileges and roles are not revoked from PUBLIC , then a minimally privileged user could access and execute packages otherwise inaccessible to him.

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      The important packages that may potentially be misused are listed in Chapter 7, "Security Policies". Instead, grant specific permissions to the explicit document root file paths for such facilities that may execute files and packages outside the database server. Examples are listed in Chapter 7, "Security Policies". Authenticate clients properly.

      With remote authentication turned on, the database implicitly trusts every client, because it assumes every client was authenticated by the remote authenticating system. However, clients in general such as remote PCs cannot be trusted to perform proper operating system authentication, so turning on this feature is a very poor security practice. Limit the privileges of the operating system accounts administrative, root-privileged, or DBA on the Oracle Database host computer to the fewest and least powerful privileges required for each user.

      Disallow modifying the default permissions for the Oracle Database home installation directory or its contents, even by privileged operating system users or the Oracle owner. Restrict symbolic links. Ensure that when any path or file to the database is provided, neither that file nor any part of that path is modifiable by an untrusted user. The file and all components of the path should be owned by the DBA or some trusted account, such as root.